For our first meeting of 2017, 60 members and guests welcomed Associate Professor Stuart Khan from UNSW School of Civil & Environmental Engineering to the podium. Stuart informed us of the current plan to ‘Make Parramatta River Swimmable Again by 2025’ which has been entrusted to the Parramatta River Catchment Group – an amalgam of River Councils, Sydney Water, Dept of Planning and the EPA.
There are currently swimming baths and beaches along the river that had been used historically (and still are) but, being a working river with a legacy of highly polluting industries along its shores, the quality of the water is dubious. Water testing over the years has revealed many and varied toxins suspended in the water column and, more worryingly, present in high densities in the sediment. Among many dirty industries Union Carbide had a large factory producing chemicals used during the Vietnam War and the resultant dioxins have entered the river and accumulated in the food chain. It is recommended that fish caught west of the Harbour Bridge not to be eaten. Industries generally do not discharge into the river anymore and there are heavy fines for doing so. However, some factories now discharge into the sewer and pay Sydney Water via a licence for the privilege.
Treatment of effluent is carried out at the ocean-end of the sewage carriers and that can prove problematic during a rain event. Stormwater enters the sewer and during heavy rain the overburdened pipes release untreated effluent directly into the creeks and river. In conclusion, swimming in the Parramatta River may well be feasible BUT unless a massive upgrade of the sewerage system is implemented then the current discharges of pollutants into the catchment during rain events will regretfully render the river risky for regular recreational revival.
CLICK HERE FOR A Pdf COPY OF THE SLIDE PRESENTATION
Members were reminded that Oatley Swimming baths have a proud and long history, with the existence of the Oatley Swimming Club at Jewfish Bay Baths since 1927. The society will work to ensure that it remains safe in terms of water quality.
Gary Schoer, OFF member and extensive Polar traveller joined us once again in November to share his photos and assessment of the beauties of and threats to the Arctic. Gary took us with him on a Aurora Expedition small group expedition to the Svalbard Archipaelego which includes its biggest Island, Spitzbergen, in between Northern Norway and Greenland.
While Gary was fortunate to see and capture some great images of seabirds such as puffins, Northern Fulmars, Ivory Gulls and Guillemonts to name a few, he gave additional insights into their conservation status and particular threats which are causing many populations to plummet in the last 20 years or so.
The smoking gun seems to be especially the rapid increase in average air temperatures, reduction in amount of sea ice especially thicker multi-year ice. In some areas average temperatures have increased by as much as 10 degrees celsius, causing the frozen soil of the tundra to melt and even creating additional pine forests where once there were no trees over many parts of the Arctic.
Gary had to travel to 81 degrees North to see 6 of 7 polar bears sighted on the journey on sea ice, which was virtually absent further south…a big change over as little as 15 years since OFFS members Julian and Annette Sheen were there. One other bear was sighted on a small glacial moraine island where it may have had to swim quite a distance to get access to Arctic tern eggs…a pressure on a bird that has flown 15 000 km from Antarctica to breed there.
So, as Gary emphasised, everything is connected. The changesd size of populations and average body length of the important bird-food fish may be contributing to sea bird losses.
While we in Australia and more temperate worlds argue about how to effect behavioural and fuel use changes to keep average world temperatures below 2 degrees above recent historical levels, the animals, plants and indigenous people who live there are well past that target, and we can only hope that sensible and strong political efforts will stope what we are seeing in the Arctic creating a tipping point that will affect ecosystems well beyond the poles.
Laurie Derwent spoke at our 24 October 2016 meeting on the rise, fall and eventual demise of the oyster industry along the Georges River.
The Derwent Family were involved in the oyster industry for the best part of 100 years. Lauries spoke from his personal experience as an oyster farmer in his youth and over 35 years experience working for various fisheries and maritime agencies until his retirement in 2013. During his lifetime, Laurie has seen the river change from an ideal oyster-growing environment to a “disaster”.
He spoke of the rich history of the estuarine areas around the Georges River – home of the world’s best oyster: Saccostrea glomerata (Sydney Rock Oyster).
He spoke of its cultivation from the early days in 1880’s: when stone was cut, and laid around the estuary to capture spat; and the rack method where oysters were suspended above the mud to avoid the mud worm.
As the production and the demand for oysters increased, this sustainable industry supported many farmers for generations. Then the troubles began with E. coli infection from water pollution; TBT (antifouling paint) influence on shellfish; introduction of rogue Pacific oyster; and the death knell itself – QX in 1994. This parasite ruined the oyster industry in the Georges River and the livelihood of many local farming families.
The humble oyster spends its entire life protected by its sharp shell feeding on the nutrient provided by the healthy River. But as our city continues to grow unabated, and our sewerage and drainage infrastructure buckles, our precious river engorges on a toxic cocktail and the humble oyster is stuck between a rock and a hard place.
PLEASE CLICK HERE FOR FULL POWER POINT PRESENTATION
Neverfail Bay Oyster Lease Remnants
Lime Kiln Bay Oyster Shell Bed
Oatley Park Tray Bed Cultivation
Pulling up Oyster Trays
Talk on Central Asia on 26th September by Julian Sheen
This presentation grappled with the complex history of Central Asia, sometimes known as the five Stans (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan).
Culture, mixing history and geography, dealt with the nomadic tribes of the steppe and the limited influence of China. Stories of such exotic peoples and places as the Sogdians, the Parthians, and the Saminids with Samarkand, Bukhara and Ashkhabad were traced along the great artery of central Asia: the Amu Darya (or Oxus River).
The backdrop was the towering mountains of the Pamir and Tienshan and the parchment dry of the Karakum desert.
Alexander the Great made his mark here in 320BC, later came the Islamic invasion of the Arabs, the contest with China and the growth of Persian influence leading to the golden age of the Islamic enlightenment (about 900-1200AD).
Much of this was swept away by the crushing impact of the Mongols in 1220AD followed by the destruction brought about by Tamerlane. Threading though this vivid historical tapestry of beauty, delicate artistry, violence and terror were the Silk Road caravan routes to and from China, India, Persia and Europe.
Finally, in the 19th century when the region was fragmented and in decay, the Imperial Russians moved in to face the British Empire active in India and Afghanistan; contestants in what became known as the Great Game. From Russian rule was spawned the Soviet Union which collapsed in 1991 bringing about the five republics we know today.
On 22 August Rodger entertained us with another one of his adventures.
On this trip he travelled the notorious Dalton Highway from Fairbanks to Deadhorse, Alaska.
This road featured on the TV program “Worlds Most Dangerous Roads”. See below for video played during talk. Before 1996 it was only open to trucks supplying the Alaskan oilfields. Despite the harsh environment, plants and animals manage to survive.
Rodger talked about their life on the edge of the Arctic Circle . Life in the extreme temperatures at 70 degrees north is tough.
Most memorable photo from the night was the Northern most spruce tree (now chopped down!)
CLICK HERE TO SEE PRESENTATION
CLICK HERE TO SEE DALTON HIGHWAY VIDEO
At the October meeting of Oatley Flora and Fauna Conservation Society, Dr Ian Wright from the University of Western Sydney (UWS) presented startling evidence of environmental damage caused by coal mining in the Sydney Region. Dr Wright worked as a scientific officer with Sydney Water investigating the impact of human activities on creeks and rivers in the Sydney basin before taking up a research fellowship at UWS in freshwater ecology and water pollution.
Ian is now a full-time lecturer teaching students in water quality and management, environmental planning and environmental regulation areas. Conducting his research on a limited budget and often faced with a hostile reception from mining interests in the Blue Mountains and Southern Highlands, Dr Wright and his students have persevered, comparing water samples taken upstream of mining activity with those down stream. They have found significant deterioration in water quality attributable to waste water discharge from mining operations. Toxic levels of salt, bicarbonate, zinc, nickel and other minerals have impacted on aquatic life and degraded the waters flowing through prized wilderness areas and World Heritage sites.
Long-wall mining, in particular, is responsible for subsidence in the bedrock of some creeks and streams feeding into Sydney’s water catchments. Dr Wright showed photographic evidence of streams simply disappearing into cracks, only to re-emerge further ‘downstream’ polluted by mining waste. Dr Wright was critical of the Environmental Protection Agency, responsible for regulating the discharge of wastewater from mines. Pollution licence conditions need to be tightened requiring mining companies to meet higher standards, although he conceded the regulator had lifted its game recently but only under pressure from the community and, in turn, government.
Asked how Oatley Flora & Fauna Conservation Society members could help to stop mining companies from causing environmental damage, Dr Wright suggested the best way would be to keep the pressure on our politicians to introduce more stringent rules on mining activities. Dr Wright gave an undertaking to keep the Society informed of future developments in the regulation of the coal industry.
Impact of a coal mine waste discharge on water quality and aquatic ecosystems in the Blue Mountains World Heritage area.
FOR MORE INFORMATION SEE DR WRIGHT’S PUBLICATIONS CLICK HERE FOR MORE ABOUT UPLAND SWAMPS
15 NOVEMBER 2015 – LEADER ARTICLE “Coal Mining Risk revealed at Conservation Society meeting”
Dr Leroy Gonslaves studied the diet of microbats that live on the Central Coast for his PhD. His study area in Empire Bay has large areas of saltmarsh, which can support huge numbers of mosquitoes at different times of the year. Apart from nuisance biting, these particular mosquitoes have the potential to spread diseases such as Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses – which can cause rashes, fever and rheumatic pains. To See Powerpoint of Talk Click Here ( 75MB) Dr Gonslaves has also surveyed 56 Sites across Sydney for Microbats. Click here to see Sydney Morning Herald article
Graham Fry’s talk about this intriguing Himalayan country drew an audience of 57. In April 2013 Graham and Liz visited Bhutan during a tour of the ‘wrinkled edge of the sub-continent’. Their group flew into Paro near the capital Thimphu and drove east in a small bus. Their route traversed a series of high passes and deep valleys that challenge road builders and divide the largely rural population into many ethnic and linguistic groups. It was spring and rhododendrons and primulas were flowering in the montane forests, and apple and peach blossom was appearing on farms along the snow-fed river valleys. In the eastern lowlands lemongrass, mandarins and bananas were under cultivation. All tour groups must be accompanied by a licensed Bhutanese guide and theirs was a forester who was expert at locating rare and spectacular birds including Satyr Tragopan, Beautiful Nuthatch and Rufous-necked Hornbill. Bhutan is a biodiversity hotspot and the constitution requires sixty per cent of the country to remain forested. Bhutan is undergoing rapid development but strives to maintain its traditional cultural, spiritual, environmental and ethical values, with the goal of improving Gross National Happiness. The constitution states “it is the fundamental duty of every citizen to contribute to the protection of the natural environment, conservation of the rich biodiversity of Bhutan and prevention of all forms of ecological degradation …”. The major sources of income are export of hydroelectricity to India, and tourism. Tourism is controlled by limiting visas and setting a high threshold for daily expenditure; a tourism royalty contributes to social services for disadvantaged citizens. Of thirteen traditional crafts practised in Bhutan, the most famous is weaving; Graham and Liz displayed examples. CLICK HERE for website describes some of the techniques, equipment and fibres used:
Dr Cameron Webb was our first speaker for 2015 regaling the audience of 60+ members and guests with warm-blooded facts and anecdotes on mosquitoes and diseases associated with these pesky ankle biters. He has provided us some useful way to beat the bites.
Mosquitoes found around the Georges River region are more than just nuisance-biting pests. Mosquito-borne pathogens, in particular Ross River virus, are regularly detected and there have been cases of human illness in the local area too. There is no mosquito control in the local wetlands so individuals need to take steps themselves to avoid mosquito bites. Long sleeved shirts, long pants and covered shoes will provide a physical barrier against mosquito but the use of topical insect repellents will be important too. There is a range of cheap, safe and effective repellents available in Australia. A repellents should be approved by the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) who test for effectiveness and safety. There’s over 100 insect repellent formulations currently registered while dozens more unregistered repellents are commonly found for sale at various stores, markets and via online retailers. The best repellents contain either DEET or picaridin as these chemicals have been repeatedly demonstrated in testing to provide the longest lasting protection against a range of biting insects. Many reviews of the literature have shown that, considering the widespread international use of these repellents, there are very few adverse health impacts reported (keeping in mind that their use has probably saved many live from potentially fatal illnesses such as malaria or dengue).
By Paul Zanetti
There are other types of repellents available. The most common are plant-based products such as tea-tree, eucalyptus, lavender, cat mint and peppermint oils. These repellents vary in their effectiveness but generally provide less protection than DEET or picaridin and if you prefer to use these types of repellent, it is important to remember that they’ll will need to be reapplied more frequently to provide comparable protection. It isn’t all about choosing the right repellent, to prevent bites you’ve got to use it correctly. Regardless of formulation, there must be an even and complete cover of all exposed skin otherwise mosquitoes will find a way through. Reapplication is required after swimming or physical activity. Spraying repellent on clothes or giving a dab “here and there” isn’t going to provide protection. Although mosquito repellent patches and wrist bands have been registered they won’t “whole body” protection against mosquito bites. Using mosquito repellents is the best way to reduce the risks of mosquito-borne disease. If you’re out and about around the local wetlands and bushland areas, it is important to take measures to avoid mosquitoes so make sure you pack a tube of insect repellent in your bag this weekend. For more information see the recent article at The Conversation “Chemical or natural: what’s the best way to repel mozzies?” Dr Cameron Webb – Department of Medical Entomology, University of Sydney and NSW Health Pathology. Email: email@example.com Twitter: @mozziebites CLICK HERE TO SEE BLOG FOR MORE INTERESTING INFORMATION :